Name: Shammai
Born: Early 1st century
Biography: Along with Hillel, Shammai was the outstanding exponent of Pharisaism during the reign of Herod (37 B.C.E. to 4 B.C.E.) He was a builder by trade and served as vice president of the Sanhedrin under Hillel. He stood for extreme rigorism in the interpretation and application of Jewish law, while Hillel was more liberal. He had a reputation for a violent temper, but was aware of his shortcomings.